If you’re planning to travel outside the Philippines, you may need to be vaccinated against some of the serious diseases found in other parts of the world.
Cholera remains a public health threat among the least privileged populations and regions affected by conflicts and natural disasters. Together with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene practices, use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) is a key tool to prevent cholera. Bivalent whole-cell killed OCVs have been extensively used worldwide and found effective in protecting populations against cholera in endemic and outbreak settings. No cholera vaccine had been available for United States (US) travelers at risk for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the US FDA. A single dose of Vaxchora™ protected US volunteers against experimental challenge 10 days and 3 months after vaccination. However, use of Vaxchora™ poses several challenges in resource poor settings as it requires reconstitution, is age-restricted to 18 to 64 years, has no data in populations endemic for cholera, and faces challenges related to cold chain and cost.
GARDASIL 9 is a vaccine indicated in females 9 through 45 years of age for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, oropharyngeal and other head and neck cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; and genital warts caused by HPV Types 6 and 11.
GARDASIL 9 is indicated in males 9 through 45 years of age for the prevention of anal, oropharyngeal and other head and neck cancers caused by HPV Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; anal precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; and genital warts caused by HPV Types 6 and 11.
The oropharyngeal and head and neck cancer indication is approved under accelerated approval based on effectiveness in preventing HPV-related anogenital disease. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial.
BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guerin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. Many foreign-born persons have been BCG-vaccinated. BCG is used in many countries with a high prevalence of TB to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. However, BCG is not generally recommended for use in the United States because of the low risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the variable effectiveness of the vaccine against adult pulmonary TB, and the vaccine’s potential interference with tuberculin skin test reactivity. The BCG vaccine should be considered only for very select persons who meet specific criteria and in consultation with a TB expert.
Tdap vaccine can prevent tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Diphtheria and pertussis spread from person to person. Tetanus enters the body through cuts or wounds.
- TETANUS (T) causes painful stiffening of the muscles. Tetanus can lead to serious health problems, including being unable to open the mouth, having trouble swallowing and breathing, or death.
- DIPHTHERIA (D) can lead to difficulty breathing, heart failure, paralysis, or death.
- PERTUSSIS (aP), also known as “whooping cough,” can cause uncontrollable, violent coughing that makes it hard to breathe, eat, or drink. Pertussis can be extremely serious especially in babies and young children, causing pneumonia, convulsions, brain damage, or death. In teens and adults, it can cause weight loss, loss of bladder control, passing out, and rib fractures from severe coughing.
Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a crippling and potentially deadly disease. It is caused by the poliovirus. The virus spreads from person to person and can invade an infected person’s brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis (can’t move parts of the body).
Polio can be prevented with vaccine. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the United States since 2000. It is given by shot in the arm or leg, depending on the person’s age. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is used in other countries.
CDC recommends that children get four doses of polio vaccine. They should get one dose at each of the following ages:2 months old4 months old6 through 18 months old4 through 6 years old
Almost all children (99 out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of polio vaccine will be protected from polio.
The first polio vaccine was available in the United States in 1955. Thanks to widespread use of polio vaccine, the United States has been polio-free since 1979. But poliovirus is still a threat in some countries. It takes only one traveler with polio to bring the disease into the United States. The best way to keep the United States polio-free is to maintain high immunity (protection) in the U.S. population against polio through vaccination.
Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (manufactured as IXIARO) is the only JE vaccine licensed and available in the United States. This vaccine was approved in March 2009 for use in people aged 17 years and older and in May 2013 for use in children 2 months through 16 years of age. Other JE vaccines are manufactured and used in other countries but are not licensed for use in the United States.
IXIARO is given as a two-dose series, with the doses spaced 28 days apart. Adults aged 18–65 years can get the second dose as early as 7 days after the first dose. The last dose should be given at least 1 week before travel. A booster dose (third dose) should be given if a person has received the two-dose primary vaccination series one year or more previously and there is a continued risk for JE virus infection or potential for reexposure.
For adults and children aged 3 years or older, each dose of IXIARO is 0.5 mL. For children aged 2 months through 2 years, each dose is 0.25 mL.
A malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria. The only approved vaccine, as of 2021, is RTS, S, known by the brand name Mosquirix. In October 2021, the WHO for the first time recommended the large-scale use of a malaria vaccine for children living in areas with moderate-to-high malaria transmission.
Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid fever.
People who are actively ill with typhoid fever and people who are carriers of the bacteria that cause typhoid fever can both spread the bacteria to other people. When someone eats or drinks contaminated food or drink, the bacteria can multiply and spread into the bloodstream, causing typhoid fever.
Typhoid fever can be a life-threatening disease. Symptoms of infection include persistent high fever, weakness, stomach pain, headache, diarrhea or constipation, cough, and loss of appetite.
People who do not get treatment can continue to have fever for weeks or months. As many as 30% of people who do not get treatment die from complications of typhoid fever. There are fewer antibiotic treatment options as drug-resistant typhoid bacteria has become more common in many parts of the world.
Typhoid fever is common in many regions of the world, including parts of East and Southeast Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Typhoid fever is not common in the United States.
Chickenpox is a very contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It causes a blister-like rash, itching, tiredness, and fever. Chickenpox used to be very common in the United States. Each year, chickenpox caused about 4 million cases, about 10,600 hospitalizations and 100 to 150 deaths.
Two doses of the vaccine are about 90% effective at preventing chickenpox. When you get vaccinated, you protect yourself and others in your community. This is especially important for people who cannot get vaccinated, such as those with weakened immune systems or pregnant women.
Some people who are vaccinated against chickenpox may still get the disease. However, it is usually milder with fewer blisters and little or no fever. Talk with your healthcare professional if you have questions about chickenpox vaccine.
CDC recommends that people get MMR vaccine to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella. Children should get two doses of MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 to 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Teens and adults should also be up to date on their MMR vaccination.
Children may also get MMRV vaccine, which protects against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox). This vaccine is only licensed for use in children who are 12 months through 12 years of age.
Influenza (flu) vaccines (often called “flu shots”) are vaccines that protect against the four influenza viruses that research indicates most common during the upcoming season. Most flu vaccines are “flu shots” given with a needle, usually in the arm, but there also is also a nasal spray flu vaccine.
Vaccines help prevent pneumococcal disease, which is any type of illness caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. There are two kinds of pneumococcal vaccines available in the United States:
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV13, PCV15, and PCV20)Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)CDC recommends PCV13 for all children younger than 2 years old and people 2 through 18 years old with certain medical conditions.
For those who have never received any pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, CDC recommends PCV15 or PCV20 for adults 65 years or older and adults 19 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions or risk factors. If PCV15 is used, this should be followed by a dose of PPSV23.CDC also recommends PPSV23 for children 2 through 18 years old with certain medical conditions.
Talk with your or your child’s doctor if you have questions about pneumococcal vaccines.
The FDA recently approvedexternal icon a single-dose live oral cholera vaccine called Vaxchora® (lyophilized CVD 103-HgR) in the United States. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to approve the vaccine for adults 18 – 64 years old who are traveling to an area of active cholera transmission.
An area of active cholera transmission is defined as a province, state, or other administrative subdivision within a country where cholera infections may be reported regularly (endemic) or where a cholera outbreak is occurring (epidemic), and includes areas with cholera activity within the past year.
The vaccine is not regularly recommended for most travelers from the United States, as most travelers do not visit areas with active cholera transmission.
No country or territory currently requires vaccination against cholera as a condition for entry.
Vaxchora® has been reported to reduce the chance of severe diarrhea in people by 90% at 10 days after vaccination and by 80% at 3 months after vaccination. The safety and effectiveness of Vaxchora® in pregnant or breastfeeding women is not yet known, and it is also not known how long protection lasts beyond 3 – 6 months after getting the vaccine. Side effects from Vaxchora® are uncommon and may include tiredness, headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, lack of appetite, and diarrhea.
A regimen of four 1-mL doses of HDCV or PCEC vaccines should be administered intramuscularly to previously unvaccinated persons.
The first dose of the four-dose course should be administered as soon as possible after exposure. Additional doses should be administered on days 3, 7, and 14 after the first vaccination. For adults, the vaccination should always be administered intramuscularly in the deltoid area (arm). For children, the anterolateral aspect of the thigh is also acceptable. The gluteal area should never be used for rabies vaccine injections because observations suggest administration in this area results in lower neutralizing antibody titers.
Human papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus. Available HPV vaccines protect against either two, four, or nine types of HPV. All HPV vaccines protect against at least HPV types 16 and 18, which cause the greatest risk of cervical cancer.
Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The virus, which is called hepatitis B virus (HBV), can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death.
Hepatitis B vaccine is available for all age groups. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants, all children or adolescents younger than 19 years of age who have not been vaccinated, all adults age 19 through 59 years, and adults age 60 years or older with risk factors for hepatitis B infection. Adults who are 60 years or older without known risk factors for hepatitis B may also receive hepatitis B vaccine.
A purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test is a test that determines if you have.TB is a serious infection, usually of the lungs, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacteria spreads when you breathe in the air exhaled by a person infected with TB. The bacteria can remain inactive in your body for years.
When your immune system becomes weakened, TB can become active and produce symptoms such as:
- night sweats
If TB doesn’t respond to antibiotics, it’s referred to as drug-resistant TB. This is a serious public health problem in many regions of the world, including Southeast Asia and Africa.
When TB infects your body, it becomes extra sensitive to certain elements of the bacteria, such as the purified protein derivative. A PPD test checks your body’s current sensitivity. This will tell doctors whether or not you have TB.
Immunization is a global health and development success story, saving millions of lives every year. Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your body’s natural defenses to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds.GET In-Touch!